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Terms and conditions of participation

Health authorities regulating the production of medicines have ruled that urine from some women is not suitable for producing medicines. The conditions will be discussed with you during a screening interview to decide whether or not your urine will meet the demands set by these health authorities. Moeders voor Moeders has, or has (had), no influence on the nature of these conditions.

You will not be able to donate your urine to Moeders voor Moeders in any of the following situations:

  • If you have hepatitis
  • If you are HIV-positive
  • If you spent at least six months in the United Kingdom between 1980 and 1996 (England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man or the Channel Islands)
  • If you have ever had a blood transfusion
  • If anyone in your family has, or has had, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
  • If you have ever been treated with growth hormones
  • If you currently have chronic kidney inflammation
  • If you have ever had a corneal transplant
  • If you have ever had a meningeal transplant
  • If you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes
  • If you drink excessive amounts of alcohol or use intravenous drugs
  • I declare that I am 18 years or older

Background to these exclusion criteria

Hepatitis

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Inflammation of the liver may have various causes, including a virus. The most common forms of a viral liver infection are hepatitis A, B and C. Viral hepatitis is contagious. Hepatitis A and B often lead to acute liver inflammation. Hepatitis C is the most common viral liver infection and can be present in the body for years without causing symptoms. This type leads to chronic hepatitis. The health authorities have ruled that if you have hepatitis, your urine will not be suitable for use in producing medicines.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

HIV is a virus that weakens the body’s natural protection against germs (the immune system). HIV infection can eventually lead to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). If someone is HIV-positive, it does not necessarily mean that this person has AIDS. HIV is also contagious. In order to exclude all risks, the health authorities have ruled that if you are HIV-positive, your urine will not be suitable for use in producing medicines.

Blood transfusion

During a blood transfusion, blood from a blood donor is transferred into the bloodstream of a patient who needs this blood. There are different types of blood transfusion, including total blood transfusions (containing red and white blood cells, platelets as well as blood plasma) and transfusion of blood components: plasma (the liquid component of blood), platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells or clotting factors. The health authorities have ruled that if you have had any of the above types of blood transfusions, your urine will not be suitable for use in producing medicines (because a blood transfusion carries a small risk of getting an infectious disease).

An exception to the above is what is called an “autotransfusion”. In this your own blood is collected and given to you again later on. If you have had an autotransfusion, your urine can be used for producing medicines, so you can, in fact, participate in Moeders voor Moeders.

Extended stay in the UK between 1980 and 1996

The health authorities have ruled that persons having spent at least six months in the United Kingdom (England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man or the Channel Islands) between 1980 and 1996 are not eligible for collection of urine because mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE) as well as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were relatively common in this region during this period. In order to exclude all risks, the health authorities have ruled that your urine may not be used for producing medicines, in that case.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) belongs to the category of spongiform brain disorders. Besides the classical form, the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was described for the first time in the United Kingdom in 1996: atypical cases of CJD in relatively young patients, with a specific clinical picture and a relatively long period of illness. A link was soon made between this form of CJD and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow disease, a prion disease in cattle). The risk of infection is not the same for all types of body tissue or fluids. The risk of infection is high when there is direct or indirect contact with the dura mater (the thick [outer] membrane of the brain), the brain, pituitary gland, inner eye or spinal marrow. Infection due to medical procedures is rare, but can, for example, occur if you have been given human growth hormone. The health authorities have ruled that the urine of people who have, or have had, an increased risk of contracting Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease may not be used for producing medicines. For these reasons, you cannot participate in Moeders voor Moeders if anyone in your family has, or has had, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Growth hormones

In the 1970s, a shortage of growth hormone was sometimes treated by administration of human growth hormone. This growth hormone was extracted from the pituitary gland of deceased people. It was given by injection. This form of treatment was discontinued in the mid-1980s after a number of patients had died from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease because the hormone they received was infected with it. The use of human growth hormone can therefore potentially lead to infection with CJD. Nowadays, growth hormone is produced by means of DNA technology/biotechnology. People do not always know for sure, however, whether they were treated with a human or a synthetic growth hormone. For safety’s sake it has been decided to exclude anyone who has ever been treated with growth hormones, regardless of the source of the hormones.

Chronic inflammation of the kidneys

Inflammation of the kidneys (nephritis) is the collective name for diseases of the kidneys in which there is inflammation in one or both kidneys. Various forms of nephritis exist. Kidney inflammation causes the kidneys to stop working properly and there is an increased risk of blood being present in your urine. Kidney inflammation can be caused by a bacterial infection. The health authorities have ruled that if you have chronic kidney inflammation, your urine will not be suitable for use in producing medicines.

Corneal transplantation

The cornea is the front part of the eye. This transparent film allows light to enter the eye. A cornea that has become cloudy due to damage or a disease impairs the entry of light. If the cornea has become permanently cloudy, clear sight can be recovered only by replacing the cloudy cornea. This takes place by means of a transplant. The new cornea comes from a donor. Because eye tissue carries an increased risk of contamination with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the health authorities have ruled that your urine may not be collected for use in producing medicines.

Meningeal transplantation

In a meningeal transplant you receive a meninges graft from a donor. Because meningeal material carries an increased risk of contamination with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the health authorities have ruled that your urine may not be collected for use in producing medicines.

Type 1 or type 2 diabetes

There are two variants of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have been shown to carry an increased risk of bacterial urinary tract infections. Furthermore, there is a scientific link between diabetes and the development of hepatitis.

The health authorities have ruled that if you have bacterial urinary tract infections or hepatitis, your urine will not be suitable for use in producing medicines. Since type 1 and type 2 diabetes carry an increased risk for this, they have also ruled that this urine cannot be used for producing medicines, either.

You can, however, participate in Moeders voor Moeders if you have gestational diabetes. This is a temporary form of diabetes that goes away after delivery of the baby.

Excessive alcohol use or intravenous drug use

Excessive alcohol use and intravenous drug use is associated with an increased risk of infectious diseases like hepatitis and HIV.

The health authorities have ruled that if you have hepatitis or HIV, your urine will not be suitable for use in producing medicines. Since excessive use of alcohol and intravenous drug use increase this risk, they have ruled that this urine, as well, cannot be used in producing medicines.

 

Should you still have any questions after having read through this information, do not hesitate to call the information number of Moeders voor Moeders at 088 - 278 0000.


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