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Terms and conditions of participation

National health authorities regulating the production of medicines have ruled that urine from some women is not suitable for making medicines. The conditions will be discussed with you during a screening interview to decide whether or not your urine will meet the demands set by these health authorities. Moeders voor Moeders has, or has had, no influence on the nature of these conditions.

You will not be able to donate your urine to Moeders voor Moeders in any of the following situations:

  • If you have hepatitis
  • If you are HIV-positive
  • If you spent at least 6 months in the United Kingdom (England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland), the Isle of Man or the Channel Islands between 1980 and 1996.
  • If you have ever had a blood transfusion
  • If anyone in your family has, or has had, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
  • If you have ever been treated with growth hormones
  • If you currently have nephritis (inflammation of the kidneys) and/or chronic nephritis
  • If you have ever had a corneal transplant
  • If you have ever had a meningeal transplant (dura mater graft)

Background to these exclusion criteria

Hepatitis

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Inflammation of the liver may have various causes, including a virus. The most common forms of a viral liver infection are hepatitis A, B and C. Viral hepatitis is contagious. Hepatitis A and B often lead to acute liver inflammation. Hepatitis C is the most common viral liver infection and can be present in the body for years without causing symptoms. This type leads to chronic hepatitis. The health authorities have ruled that if you have hepatitis, your urine will not be suitable for use in producing medicines.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

HIV is a virus that weakens the human body’s natural protection against germs (the immune system). HIV infection can eventually lead to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). If someone is HIV-positive, it does not necessarily mean that this person has AIDS. HIV is contagious. In order to exclude all risks, the health authorities have ruled that if you are HIV-positive, your urine will not be suitable for use in producing medicines.

Blood transfusion

During a blood transfusion, blood from a blood donor is transferred into the bloodstream of a patient who needs this blood. There are different types of blood transfusion, including total blood transfusions (containing red and white blood cells, platelets as well as blood plasma) and transfusion of blood components: plasma (the liquid component of blood), platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells or coagulation factors. The health authorities have ruled that if you have undergone any of the abovementioned types of blood transfusion your urine will not be suitable for use in producing medicines.

An exception to this is an “autotransfusion”. In this your own blood is collected and given to you again later on. Therefore, if you have ever undergone such an autotransfusion, you can still take part in the Moeders voor Moeders program.

Extended stay in the UK between 1980 and 1996

The health authorities have ruled that persons having spent at least 6 months in the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man or the Channel Islands between 1980 and 1996 are not eligible for collection of urine because mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE) as well as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were quite common in this region during this period. In order to exclude all risks, the health authorities have ruled that your urine may then not be used for producing medicines.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) belongs to the category of spongiform brain disorders. Besides the classical form, the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was described for the first time in the UK in 1996: atypical cases of CJD in relatively young patients, with a specific clinical picture and a relatively long period of illness. This form of CJD was quickly linked to BSE. The risk of infection is not the same for all types of body tissue or fluids. The risk of infection is high upon direct or indirect contact with the dura mater (the thick outer membrane of the brain, meninges), the brain, pituitary gland, inner eye or spinal cord. Infection due to medical procedures is rare, but can, for example, occur if you have been given human growth hormone. The health authorities have ruled that the urine of people who have/have had an increased risk of contracting Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease may not be used for producing medicines.

Growth hormones

In the 1970s, a shortage of growth hormone was treated by administration of human growth hormone. This growth hormone was extracted from the pituitary gland of deceased people. It was given by injection. This form of treatment was discontinued in the mid-1980s after a number of patients had died from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease because the hormone they received was infected with it. The use of human growth hormone can therefore potentially lead to infection with CJD. Nowadays, growth hormone is produced by means of DNA technology/biotechnology. People do not always know for sure, however, whether they were treated with a human or a synthetic growth hormone. For safety’s sake it has been decided to exclude anyone who has ever been treated with growth hormones, regardless of the source of the hormones.

Inflammation of the kidneys

Inflammation of the kidneys (nephritis) is the collective name for diseases of the kidneys that resemble inflammations. Various forms of nephritis exist. Nephritis causes the kidneys to stop working properly. Nephritis can be caused by a bacterial infection. The health authorities have ruled that if you have a kidney inflammation, your urine will not be suitable for use in producing medicines.

Corneal transplantation

The cornea is the front part of the eye. This transparent film allows light to enter the eye. A cornea that has become cloudy due to damage or a disease impairs the entry of light. If the cornea has become permanently cloudy, clear sight can be recovered only by replacing the cloudy cornea. This takes place by means of a transplant. The new cornea comes from a donor. Because eye tissue carries an increased risk of contamination with CJD, the health authorities have ruled that your urine may not be collected for use in producing medicines.

Meningeal transplantation

In a meningeal transplant you receive a meninges graft from a donor. Because meningeal material carries an increased risk of contamination with CJD, the health authorities have ruled that your urine may not be collected for use in producing medicines.

Should you still have any questions after having read through this information, do not hesitate to call the Moeders voor Moeders infoline toll-free at 0800-0228070.

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